Month: March 2017

Using NuttX as a library

It is possible to use NuttX as library, then you don’t need to compile the source code all the time, just modify your application and link it against the NuttX library.

Here I will explain step-by-step how to do that.

I will consider that you just entered on nuttx/tools and executed the ./configure.sh to select your board and your application profile (here my application is called “hello” and CONFIG_USER_ENTRYPOINT=”hello_main”). Then now instead of executing “make” to compile the source code you should to execute:

make export

If everything worked as expected you will get the file “nuttx-export.zip”. Extract this file and create your application inside it. Here I create a hello.c file with it:

#include 

int hello_main(void)
{
        printf("Hello World!\n");
        return 0;
}

Now I compiled it this way:

$ arm-none-eabi-gcc -c -fno-builtin -Wall -Wstrict-prototypes -Wshadow -Wundef -g -mcpu=cortex-m4 -mthumb -mfloat-abi=soft -I. -isystem ./include   -pipe -I "./include"  hello.c -o  hello.o

We just need to link again libnuttx.a to generate our nuttx ELF:

$ arm-none-eabi-ld --entry=__start -nostartfiles -nodefaultlibs -T./build/spificonfig.ld -L./libs hello.o -o nuttx.elf --start-group -lnuttx "/usr/lib/gcc/arm-none-eabi/6.2.1/thumb/v7e-m/libgcc.a" --end-group

And to generate the finaly binary from the ELF:

$ arm-none-eabi-objcopy -S -O binary nuttx.elf nuttx.bin

It is also a good idea to generate the map of symbols with the physical address of each function:

$ arm-none-eabi-nm nuttx.elf | \
grep -v '\(compiled\)\|\(\.o$\)\|\( [aUw] \)\|\(\.\.ng$\)\|\(LASH[RL]DI\)' | \
sort > System.map

Well done, now just flash it using OpenOCD and STLink-V2 :

$ sudo openocd -f interface/stlink-v2.cfg -f target/lpc4330.cfg -c init -c "reset halt" -c "flash write_image erase nuttx.bin 0x14000000"
Open On-Chip Debugger 0.10.0 (2017-02-12-09:48)
Licensed under GNU GPL v2
For bug reports, read
	http://openocd.org/doc/doxygen/bugs.html
Info : auto-selecting first available session transport "hla_swd". To override use 'transport select '.
adapter speed: 500 kHz
Info : The selected transport took over low-level target control. The results might differ compared to plain JTAG/SWD
Info : Unable to match requested speed 500 kHz, using 480 kHz
Info : Unable to match requested speed 500 kHz, using 480 kHz
Info : clock speed 480 kHz
Info : STLINK v2 JTAG v17 API v2 SWIM v4 VID 0x0483 PID 0x3748
Info : using stlink api v2
Info : Target voltage: 3.273164
Info : lpc4350.m4: hardware has 6 breakpoints, 4 watchpoints
target halted due to debug-request, current mode: Thread 
xPSR: 0x01000000 pc: 0x10402c40 msp: 0x10087ff0
auto erase enabled
Info : Found flash device 'win w25q64cv' (ID 0x001740ef)
Warn : no flash bank found for address 28000000
Warn : no flash bank found for address 280074c4
wrote 0 bytes from file nuttx.bin in 0.087209s (0.000 KiB/s)
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Using LPCScrypt to flash firmware on Bambino board

I decided to use LPCScrypt from NXP to flash the Bambino-200E board. This way other people could to flash NuttX inside the board without a JTAG/SWD programmer, because LPCScrypt uses DFU to do that.

Initially I downloaded the LPCScrypt 1.8 for Linux from NXP site: http://www.nxp.com/products/microcontrollers-and-processors/arm-processors/lpc-cortex-m-mcus/software-tools/lpc-microcontroller-utilities/lpcscrypt-v1.8.0:LPCSCRYPT

I read the documentation and installed the dependencies and support to run 32-bits application. But LPCScrypt installer was not starting:

$ ./lpcscrypt_1.8.0_723_Linux-x86 
invalid command name "bind"
    while executing
"::unknown bind Text "
    ("uplevel" body line 1)
    invoked from within
"uplevel 1 $next $args"
    (procedure "::obj::Unknown" line 3)
    invoked from within
"bind Text "
    (procedure "::InstallJammer::InitializeGui" line 19)
    invoked from within
"::InstallJammer::InitializeGui "
    (procedure "::InstallJammer::InitInstall" line 68)
    invoked from within
"::InstallJammer::InitInstall"
    (file "/installkitvfs/main.tcl" line 22457)

Fortunately Jim Wolfman from Smoothie project had the LPCScrypt as a tar ball, then I don’t need to install:

$ wget blog.wolfman.com/files/lpcscrypt.tgz
$ tar xvf lpcscrypt.tgz

I need to create a udev rule to avoid the USB CDC/ACM port be used as modem:

$ sudo vi /etc/udev/rules.d/99-lpcscrypt.rules
SUBSYSTEM=="usb", ATTRS{idVendor}=="1fc9", ATTRS{idProduct}=="000c", MODE="0666"
SUBSYSTEM=="tty", ATTRS{idVendor}=="1fc9", ATTRS{idProduct}=="0083", MODE="0666"
ATTRS{idVendor}=="1fc9", ATTRS{idProduct}=="0083", ENV{ID_MM_DEVICE_IGNORE}="1"

Also you need to install the dfu-util program before using the lpcscrypt.

So, now jump/connect the two pins of BOOT (JP1) and reset the board. The board will enter on DFU mode, then you can execute the boot_lpcscrypt:

$ sudo ./lpcscrypt/scripts/boot_lpcscrypt

If the above command fails, you can try to run it manually:

$ sudo dfu-util -d 0x1fc9:0x000c -c 0 -i 0 -t 2048 -R  -D ./lpcscrypt/bin/LPCScrypt_140.bin.hdr

You can run dmesg to see if ttyACM0 was detected after running the LPCScrypt binary.

Finally you can run this command to flash nuttx.bin inside the external flash of Bambino board:

$ ./lpcscrypt/bin/lpcscrypt program -d /dev/ttyACM0 +c nuttx.bin SPIFI

That is it. I hope it works for you too.

Recurring Neural Network

Two days ago I found this nice post at Hackaday about a guy who create a program to generate music:

Neural Network Composes Music; Says “I’ll be Bach”

He used Long Short Term Memory networks (LSTM) a kind of Recurring Neural Network (RNN), then I started to search more about these subjects and found some interesting links that I want to share with you:

Understanding LSTM Networks:
http://colah.github.io/posts/2015-08-Understanding-LSTMs/

The Unreasonable Effectiveness of Recurrent Neural Networks:
http://karpathy.github.io/2015/05/21/rnn-effectiveness/

Recurrent Neural Networks Tutorial:
http://www.wildml.com/2015/09/recurrent-neural-networks-tutorial-part-1-introduction-to-rnns/

I hope you enjoy reading about it. When I got something about it working on microcontrollers I will post here.

Nice Tutorial about RFID 125KHz encoding

Are you trying to decode the Manchester protocol of 125KHz RFID cards?

Well, there are many documentations in the Internet explaining how to do that, but this one is the most didactic tutorial I have found:

http://rodyne.com/?p=641

Other sites about RFID:

How to read HID cards: http://web.archive.org/web/20120629130957/http://colligomentis.com/2012/05/16/hid-reader-arduino-rfid-card-catcher

https://ryanpbaker.wordpress.com/category/rfid-reader/

http://adamsblog.aperturelabs.com/2013/08/rfidler-open-source-software-defined.html